The Real War Against America PDF Download

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"...the real war will never get in the books" PDF Download

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The Real War PDF Download

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The Real War

Perspectives on the Real War PDF Download

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Perspectives on the Real War

The Real War on Terror PDF Download

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The Real War on Obesity PDF Download

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The real war in plain sight PDF Download

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Real War vs. Reel War PDF Download

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Real War Horses PDF Download

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Real War Games Inc. PDF Download

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Teacher Involvement in High-Stakes Language Testing

Teacher Involvement in High-Stakes Language Testing PDF Author: Daniel Xerri
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3319771779
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 345

Book Description
This book advocates that teachers should play an active role in high-stakes language testing and that more weight should be given to teacher judgement. This is likely to increase the formative potential of high-stakes tests and provide teachers with a sense of ownership. The implication is that the knowledge and skills they develop by being involved in these tests will feed into their own classroom practices. The book also considers the arguments against teacher involvement, e.g. the contention that teacher involvement might entrench the practice of teaching to the test, or that teachers should not be actively involved in high-stakes language testing because their judgement is insufficiently reliable. Using contributions from a wide range of international educational contexts, the book proposes that a lack of reliability in teacher judgement is best addressed by means of training and not by barring educators from participating in high-stakes language testing. It also argues that their involvement in testing helps teachers to bolster confidence in their own judgement and develop their assessment literacy. Moreover, teacher involvement empowers them to play a role in reforming high-stakes language testing so that it is more equitable and more likely to enhance classroom practices. High-stakes language tests that adopt such an inclusive approach facilitate more effective learning on the part of teachers, which ultimately benefits all their students.

Teacher Agency and Policy Response in English Language Teaching

Teacher Agency and Policy Response in English Language Teaching PDF Author: Patrick C. L. Ng
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1317295811
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 217

Book Description
The role of English in the global arena has prompted official language-in-education policy makers to adopt language education policies to enable its citizens to be proficient in English and to access knowledge. Local educational contexts in different countries have implemented English education in their own ways with different pedagogical goals, motivations, features and pedagogies. While much of the research cited in English language planning policy has focused on macro level language policy and planning, there is an increasing interest in micro planning, in particular teacher agency in policy response. Individual teacher agency is a multifaceted amalgam, not only of teachers’ individual histories, professional training, personal values and instructional beliefs, but also of how these interact with local interpretations and appropriations of policy. Teacher Agency and Policy Response in English Language Teaching examines the agency of the teacher in negotiating educational reforms and policy changes at the local and national levels. Chapters in the book include: English language teaching in China: teacher agency in response to curricular innovations Incorporating academic skills into EFL curriculum: teacher agency in response to global mobility challenge Teacher agency, the native/nonnative dichotomy, and "English Classes in English" in Japanese high Schools Teacher-designed high stakes English language testing: washback and impact This book will appeal to researcher across all sectors of education, in particular key stakeholders in curriculum and language planning. Those interested in the latest development of English language teaching will also find this book a valuable resource.

The Politics of English Second Language Writing Assessment in Global Contexts

The Politics of English Second Language Writing Assessment in Global Contexts PDF Author: Todd Ruecker
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351603027
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 244

Book Description
Reflecting the internationalization of the field of second language writing, this book focuses on political aspects and pedagogical issues of writing instruction and testing in a global context. High-stakes assessment impacts the lives of second language (L2) writers and their teachers around the world, be it the College English Test in China, Common Core-aligned assessments in the U.S., English proficiency tests in Poland, or the material conditions (such as access to technology, training, and other resources) affecting a classroom. With contributions from authors working in ten different countries in a variety of institutional contexts, the chapters examine the uses and abuses of various writing-related assessments, and the policies that determine their form and use. Representing a diverse range of contexts, methods, and disciplines, the authors jointly call for more equitable testing systems that consider the socioeconomic, psychometric, affective, institutional, and needs of all students who strive to gain access to education and employment opportunities related to English language proficiency.

Learning-Oriented Language Assessment

Learning-Oriented Language Assessment PDF Author: Atta Gebril
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000378462
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 254

Book Description
This collection brings together research on learning-oriented language assessment from scholars working across geographic and educational contexts, highlighting the opportunities of assessment practices which seek to better align assessment and learning tasks and support effective learning. The volume begins by introducing learning-oriented assessment (LOA) and the context around its growing popularity, especially in accountability-oriented settings which favor summative large-scale tests. The first part of the book charts the development of LOA’s theoretical and conceptual underpinnings, outlining the ways in which they have been informed by theories of learning and key elements. The second part demonstrates LOA in practice, drawing on examples from different countries and instructional settings to explore such topics as the role of technology in LOA and developing feedback materials based around LOA principles and developed for core literacy skills. Offering a holistic view of learning-oriented assessment and the real-world affordances and challenges of its implementation, this book is key reading for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in language testing and assessment, TESOL, and language education.

EFL/ESL Teachers’ Professional Development: Approaches, Applications, and Impact

EFL/ESL Teachers’ Professional Development: Approaches, Applications, and Impact PDF Author: Ali Derakhshan
Publisher: Frontiers Media SA
ISBN: 2889768570
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 457

Book Description


Language Assessment Literacy and the Professional Development of Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers

Language Assessment Literacy and the Professional Development of Pre-Service Foreign Language Teachers PDF Author: Giraldo, Frank
Publisher: Editorial Universidad de Caldas
ISBN: 9587593014
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 254

Book Description
Language teachers the world over inevitably need to engage in assessing their students’ language ability for various purposes – diagnostic, progress, achievement, etc. Because language assessment is a major task for language teachers, language teaching programs should provide pre-service teachers with opportunities to problematize assessment in the foreign or second language classroom. Educating pre-service teachers for assessment should lead to positive consequences on their in-service work. In this book, the author provides a research-based approach to plan, design, implement, and evaluate a language assessment course for pre-service teachers. The following are some of the central issues addressed in the book: • A conceptualization of Language Assessment Literacy (LAL) –the central construct in the book– and its relationship with language teachers’ professional development. • A theoretically and empirically driven approach for planning and designing a language assessment course. • A hands-on approach to teaching language assessment to pre-service language teachers. • Suggestions for teaching the design of assessments for the four language skills. • Suggestions for language teacher educators to discuss and derive ideas for assessment in their language teaching programs. • Real sample items and tasks for teaching and assessing pre-service teachers’ LAL. The author constantly invites teacher educators to reflect upon the theory, research, and practice presented in the book. In doing so, he encourages these stakeholders to plan and teach language assessment courses that foster the LAL of pre-service teachers’, an overlooked stakeholder group in LAL discussions.

Language Assessment Literacy

Language Assessment Literacy PDF Author: Dina Tsagari
Publisher: Cambridge Scholars Publishing
ISBN: 152754978X
Category : Foreign Language Study
Languages : en
Pages : 332

Book Description
The field of language testing and assessment has recognized the importance and underlying theoretical and practical underpinnings of language assessment literacy (LAL), an area that is gradually coming to prominence. This book addresses issues that promote the concept of LAL for language research, teaching, and learning, covering a range of topics. It brings together 14 chapters based on high-stakes and classroom-based studies authored by academics, professionals and researchers in the field. The text examines diverse issues through a multifaceted approach, presenting high-quality contributions that fill a gap in a research area that has long been in need of theoretical and empirical attention.

The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing

The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing PDF Author: Paula Winke
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1351034766
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 484

Book Description
This Handbook, with 45 chapters written by the world’s leading scholars in second language acquisition (SLA) and language testing, dives into the important interface between SLA and language testing: shared ground where researchers seek to measure second language performance to better understand how people learn their second languages. The Handbook also reviews how to best measure and evaluate the second language (L2) learners’ personal characteristics, backgrounds, and learning contexts to better understand their L2 learning trajectories. Taking a transdisciplinary approach to research, the book builds upon recent theorizing and measurement principles from the fields of applied linguistics, cognitive science, psychology, psycholinguistics, psychometrics, educational measurement, and social psychology. The Handbook is divided into six key sections: (1) Assessment concepts for SLA researchers, (2) Building instruments for SLA research, (3) Measuring individual differences, (4) Measuring language development, (5) Testing specific populations, and (6) Measurement principles for SLA researchers.

Changing Language Assessment

Changing Language Assessment PDF Author: Sahbi Hidri
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030422690
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 382

Book Description
This edited book brings together fifteen original empirical studies from a variety of international contexts to provide a detailed exploration of language assessment, testing and evaluation. Language assessment has a key role in the development and implementation of language and educational policies at the national level, and this book examines some of the impacts - both positive and negative - of different skills testing and examination approaches on learning outcomes and individual students' language learning. This book will be of interest to scholars working in applied linguistics and language education, teacher training, testing and evaluation, as well as stakeholders such as practitioners, educators, educational agencies, and test developers.

The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing

The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing PDF Author: Glenn Fulcher
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000464695
Category : Language Arts & Disciplines
Languages : en
Pages : 674

Book Description
This second edition of The Routledge Handbook of Language Testing provides an updated and comprehensive account of the area of language testing and assessment. The volume brings together 35 authoritative articles, divided into ten sections, written by 51 leading specialists from around the world. There are five entirely new chapters covering the four skills: reading, writing, listening, and speaking, as well as a new entry on corpus linguistics and language testing. The remaining 30 chapters have been revised, often extensively, or entirely rewritten with new authorship teams at the helm, reflecting new generations of expertise in the field. With a dedicated section on technology in language testing, reflecting current trends in the field, the Handbook also includes an extended epilogue written by Harding and Fulcher, contemplating what has changed between the first and second editions and charting a trajectory for the field of language testing and assessment. Providing a basis for discussion, project work, and the design of both language tests themselves and related validation research, this Handbook represents an invaluable resource for students, researchers, and practitioners working in language testing and assessment and the wider field of language education.